Just a Computer Graphics Studio & My Life

[iOS] Delegate 與 Datasource

剛開始學寫iOS時一定得弄清楚什麼是delegate什麼是datasource,爬了前人研究的結論,其實兩者是一樣的機制,只是前者處理介面,而後者處理資料

接下來就是探討何謂代理(delegatation)?舉個例子就很容易瞭解,當使用者點選視窗中的確定或取消的按鈕,會由代理者(delegater)來負責回應下一步的動作。

開發者文件是這麼定義代理(delegatation)

Delegation is a simple and powerful pattern in which one object in a program acts on behalf of, or in coordination with, another object. The delegating object keeps a reference to the other object—the delegate—and at the appropriate time sends a message to it. The message informs the delegate of an event that the delegating object is about to handle or has just handled. The delegate may respond to the message by updating the appearance or state of itself or other objects in the application, and in some cases it can return a value that affects how an impending event is handled. The main value of delegation is that it allows you to easily customize the behavior of several objects in one central object.

同時它也定義資料來源(data scorce)

A data source is almost identical to a delegate. The difference is in the relationship with the delegating object. Instead of being delegated control of the user interface, a data source is delegated control of data. The delegating object, typically a view object such as a table view, holds a reference to its data source and occasionally asks it for the data it should display. A data source, like a delegate, must adopt a protocol and implement at minimum the required methods of that protocol. Data sources are responsible for managing the memory of the model objects they give to the delegating view.

直接拿iOS的程式碼來看,建立一個專案會有AppDelegate.h和AppDelegate.m:

//AppDelegate.h
#import <UIKit/UIKit.h>

@class ViewController;

@interface AppDelegate : UIResponder <UIApplicationDelegate>

@property (strong, nonatomic) UIWindow *window;

@property (strong, nonatomic) ViewController *viewController;

@end

以上表示遵從UIApplicationDelegate協定

//AppDelegate.m
#import "AppDelegate.h"

#import "ViewController.h"

@implementation AppDelegate

- (BOOL)application:(UIApplication *)application didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:(NSDictionary *)launchOptions
{
    self.window = [[UIWindow alloc] initWithFrame:[[UIScreen mainScreen] bounds]];
    // Override point for customization after application launch.
    self.viewController = [[ViewController alloc] initWithNibName:@"ViewController" bundle:nil];
    self.window.rootViewController = self.viewController;
    [self.window makeKeyAndVisible];
    return YES;
}

- (void)applicationWillResignActive:(UIApplication *)application
{
    // Sent when the application is about to move from active to inactive state. This can occur for certain types of temporary interruptions (such as an incoming phone call or SMS message) or when the user quits the application and it begins the transition to the background state.
    // Use this method to pause ongoing tasks, disable timers, and throttle down OpenGL ES frame rates. Games should use this method to pause the game.
}

- (void)applicationDidEnterBackground:(UIApplication *)application
{
    // Use this method to release shared resources, save user data, invalidate timers, and store enough application state information to restore your application to its current state in case it is terminated later.
    // If your application supports background execution, this method is called instead of applicationWillTerminate: when the user quits.
}

- (void)applicationWillEnterForeground:(UIApplication *)application
{
    // Called as part of the transition from the background to the inactive state; here you can undo many of the changes made on entering the background.
}

- (void)applicationDidBecomeActive:(UIApplication *)application
{
    // Restart any tasks that were paused (or not yet started) while the application was inactive. If the application was previously in the background, optionally refresh the user interface.
}

- (void)applicationWillTerminate:(UIApplication *)application
{
    // Called when the application is about to terminate. Save data if appropriate. See also applicationDidEnterBackground:.
}

@end

以上方法是代理的實作部分,若沒有特別定義行為,代理機制將是預設的定義行為。

參考

Delegate/Data Source和Controller(一)

Delegate/Data Source和Controller(二)

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